Back in the 5th century BCE, Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus proposed the idea that all matter was composed of small particles called atoms. In India, similar concepts also arose. These concepts remained unknown and assumed until the 19th to 20th centuries. Since those early times, earth science broke the atom down into even smaller particles, even pictured them as tiny solar systems with electron planets going around them in quantum orbits. But much as man once thought the sun traveled around the earth, the atom became the next big mystery in man's struggle to understand creation.
Formulas came and went, trying to derive atomic radii and quantum levels based on the solar system concept, but these did not survive the test of time. A perfect example is the Coulomb/Newtonian classical atomic radius computation, yielding astronomical inequalities when paired:
Paradoxically, subatomic particles have yet to be witnessed except for scant trace scatters emerging from high energy collisions that are not very convincing, in spite of the massive amounts of math thrown at them. It wasn’t until the first high powered microscopes were invented (atomic force microscopy in recent times) that atoms were first seen, not as tiny solar systems, but rather balls of energy, some without an inner core as shown.
The atom, with its quantum leaps and energy shifts, is not a store house of power and forces, but rather the manifestation of same. It is much like a wind up toy that has no batteries but a crank. And unless you turn the crank, there's no movement. Much like plasma or a star, the atom is a field of force established by interacting, pulsing energy that outwardly expands from a core source. This source, as well as the energy it expels, are in themselves "replicated" constituents of "parts" of this core source. The light it exerts, the gravity, radiation, and bonding channel properties, all are resources being exhausted but also replenished from the source, not combusted.
Just as a stone thrown into a pond, outward waves will continue to flow as long as rocks are thrown into it. Thus, the atom is the rock's impact point with the pond, outward waves are the replicated expelled constituents, and the rock: strings. We must remember that expelled components are also strings, for anything matter, time, or space is the product of strings and their frequency relationship. More on that later.